Anaesthesia for ENT and Head & Neck Surgery

  • Ophthalmic Anaesthesia
        Anatomy & Anaesthesia
    Sub-Tenons blocks
  • Ear Nose & Throat Anaesthesia
  • Faciomaxillary Anaesthesia
  • Societies & Organisations
  • Dental Anaesthesia
        Guidelines & Standards
    Societies & organisations

Ophthalmic Anaesthesia

Anatomy and Anaesthesia

  • Dr. Varvinski & Eltringham have comprehensively described Anatomy of orbit relevant to anaesthetists. The technique of Peribulbar block& Retrobulbar block, their relative Advantages & disadvantages and Complications are described. They have also described General Anaesthesia for Ophthalmic Surgery
  • Dr. Hamilton’s article published in The British Journal of Anaesthesia 1995; 75:88-92 described the Techniques of orbital regional anaesthesia

Sub-Tenon’s Anaesthesia

  • Sub-Tenon’s anesthesia Advantages
  • Sub-Tenon’s Anesthesia Cannulas are produced by various manufacturers. e.g Visitec, Katena, Altomed
  • Comparison of Pain, Motility, and Preoperative Sedation in Cataract Phacoemulsification Patients Receiving Peribulbar or Sub-Tenon’s Anesthesia
  • Other useful papers include:
  • Anderson 199 Comparison of preservative-free bupivacaine vs. lidocaine for intracameral anesthesia a randomized clinical trial and in vitro

Ophthalmic Organisations

  • British Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society provides useful contacts for ophthalmic anaesthetists
  • The (US) Ophthalmic Anesthesia Society is an organisation of anaesthesiologists, ophthalmologists, and CRNAs committed to sharing education and information which will enable them to provide the highest level of anesthesia services during ophthalmic surgery.
  • American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
  • American Academy of Ophthalmology
  • Moorfields Eye Hospital

Ophthalmic Journals

  • British Journal of Ophthalmology online includes articles in full text and with all figures and tables, fully searchable by author, title, and keyword. The cited references at the end of each article include hyperlinks to Medline abstracts and through to the full text of other journals available online through Highwire Press, a division of Stanford University’s Green Library.
  • The American Journal of Ophthalmology is a monthly peer reviewed, scientific publication. As a companion to our print publication, AJO On-line provides Authors Interactive, Table of Contents for Next Month, the Current Month, and Previous Months, Abstracts of Original Articles and Perspectives, Keyword Search Function, On-line Subscriptions etc.
  • Eye is the Journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists


Ear Nose & Throat Anaesthesia


Anatomy of ear nose and throat is explained in simple terms. Aimed at Medical Students but others may also find it useful.


ENT Anaesthesia Technique differs from other anaesthesia. Important Features are shared airway, difficult airway, emergence & extubation, variety of airway equipment, apnoea and rapid case turnover.

  • Dr Lloyd-Thomas answers Frequently Asked Questions for patients about Anaesthesia for ENT Surgery, postoperative pain management & post-operative eating and drinking.
  • John Doyle’s comprehensive account of Medical Conditions with Airway Implications deals with Diabetes and the Airway, Obstructive Sleep Apnoea, Obesity, Anaesthetic Considerations in the Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Zenker’s Diverticulum, Acromegaly, Pregnancy, Anaphylaxis, Mediastinal Masses, Epiglottitis, The Airway in HIV-Infected Patients, Ludwig’s Angina, and Retropharyngeal Abscess.
  • is one of the foremost ENT / head and neck journals. A search finds something about almost anything. There are some very interesting case reports about tracheostomy, obstructive sleep apnoea, head & neck swelling, obstructive pharyngeal mass, …..
  • There is large amount of patient information related to ENT procedures at the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head & neck Surgery site. It also has some useful research contents


  • Propofol-based anesthesia as compared with standard anaesthetic techniques for middle ear surgery
  • Comparison of 3 different anesthetic techniques on 24-hour recovery after otologic surgical procedure
  • Ondansetron versus droperidol or placebo to prevent nausea and vomiting after otologic surgery
  • A new anesthetic system for microlaryngeal surgery
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (of a neck mass): Is anesthesia necessary?
  • Desflurane or Isoflurane for paediatric ENT anaesthesia A comparison of intubating conditions and recovery profile


  • American Academy of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery – extensive education resources can be ordered.
  • American Rhinologic Society -useful and informative.


  • American Laryngological Association has no real anaesthesia related contents
  • Otolaryngology Head & Neck surgery Journal
  • Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery – mostly surgical


Faciomaxillary Anaesthesia

Local & Regional Anaesthesia Techniques in head & neck surgery are commonly used. Merits and drawbacks, physiology & pharmacology and specific techniques are discussed.

  • Technique of Fiberoptic Bronchoscope Guided Endotracheal Intubation. I just sit the patient upright, head forward in sniffing position, tongue out & up a little, then spray 10% lignocaine while the patient ‘pants’ with short breaths in and out. The spray nozzle can be directed close to the larynx as anaesthesia develops, keeping the spray as anterior as possible. Typically I spray three to four times at 5 minute intervals – better not to rush! Unless there is significant supraglottic obstruction, this technique alone does a great job, and is simple to do.
  • Search or browsethe journal for more information.

Societies & Organisations

  • American Board of Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery has useful information about the board but not much clinical stuff yet
  • American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery site has fact sheet about various cosmetic procedures but no anaesthesia related contents.


Dental Anaesthesia

Guidelines & Standards

  • Standards & Guidelines for General Anaesthesia from the UK Royal College of Anaesthetists
  • The General Dental Council of the UK site can be searched for information on standards.

Dental Societies & Organisations

  • The American Society of Dentist Anesthesiologists (ASDA) comprises a group of dentists who have completed a minimum of two years of full-time postdoctoral training in anesthesiology. Info for patients.
  • American Dental Society of Anesthesiologists
  • American Dental Association

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